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Baby Massage

Babies like massage. It helps them sleep better and to relax. Many traditional cultures have used massage as part of baby care, and research indicates that it can have many benefits. Infant massage allows you to understand and respond to your baby’s body language. It is also a fantastic way to let your baby feel safe and secure.

Infant massage should be a wonderful experience for both the parent and the child, and whilst it does not necessarily come naturally to parents, it is need not be difficult and it can be learned from others practicing or from specially designed infant massage classes.

The Benefits of Baby Massage
Baby massage1. Provides relief from discomfort
Oxytocin and endorphins can be released through massage and these assist in relieving discomfort from teething, congestion and colic. For example a very gentle daily abdomen massage (a specific sequence provided by a trained practitioner) can assist in moving and releasing small amounts of gas trapped in the colon. If the small amounts of gas are consistently being eliminated then it may be possible to prevent the build up of gas and reduce impact of baby colic.

2. Speeds development of the brain and nervous system
Skin stimulation can speed the process of myelination of the brain and nervous system which improves the body-brain communication.

3. Relaxation and enhancement of neurological development
During a baby massage the child can experience both stress and relaxation stimulae. Increased circulation, cool air on the skin, the stimulation of stroking, may be stressful to a newborn, yet if these are balanced with the reassuring the parental voice and touch, then the baby will undergo a learning experience.

4. Sleep
Some babies sleep for longer periods following infant massage and also appear to have longer periods of deep sleep. However it should be noted that a course of action that is effective with one baby does not necessarily apply to the next. There are cases where the problematic sleep pattern of babies is not improved by infant massage.

Other benefits include:

  • Enhances the bonding process
  • Helps muscle tone and assists growth
  • Strengthens the immune system
  • Increases Circulation
  • Improves sensory awareness

Baby massage provides quality time between parent and baby and enables parents to feel more confident in their role and provides parents with a great tool for aiding their child to relax during stressful times.

Tips for a Great Baby Massage
To begin with then choose a time in which you and your child are relaxed and calm eg 30 minutes after the baby has eaten may be a great time. Do not massage infants under 5 months of age in conjunction with bath time. This is over-stimulating. For young infants, massage and bath time need to be separated by a nap or night- time sleep as they are both quite stimulating.

  • Place the baby on a soft surface and your baby will feel comfortable and secure.
  • The room needs to be warm enough for your baby to be comfortable without any clothing.
  • Don’t not apply cold cream or lotion directly onto your baby but warm it first by putting the cream onto your hands and rubbing them together.
  • Always begin with massaging the legs. This is an unobtrusive way to begin a massage as the legs are touched constantly while changing nappies. To place your hands directly on the infant’s chest or abdomen to begin massaging can be intrusive, and unacceptable to many infants.
  • Use long firm (but tender) strokes. Light, feathery massage tend to irritate babies infants, as it does most adults.
  • During the massage then feel free to look at your baby tenderly. This will stimulate all the senses of the baby and establish a more intense visual and tactile communication. Speaking to your baby during the massage will also add to the experience.
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  • If the baby wants to change position let them do so. Do not force your baby to keep a position, you can go back to these areas later on. Never watch the clock while massaging your baby. Simply go by what your child is indicating they want. If your baby wants more massage, and you are willing to continue then keep going. If you can see that your child has had enough – stop, regardless of how much massage you managed to get through.
  • Never massage your baby while they are is crying. (The only exception for this may be with colic, and painful gas). Any arm movements going in and out from the chest indicate that you should stop the massage.

Remember that your touches should be tender and consider being flexible and not keeping to a rigid routine.

The Benefits of Abdominal Massage

Many massage therapists will spend the vast majority of session working on the back of the client. They will give great bodywork to the back, shoulders, neck and the back of the legs but then only give cursory attention to the front of the body. Now it is true that most of us have significant issues with the back of our bodies but to neglect the muscles and soft tissues at the front of the body is to provide an incomplete session. Only a few therapists would routinely incorporate an abdominal massage within a full body massage, yet there is little doubt that bodywork through the stomach area can offer many health benefits.

Abdominal massageMost people who do request an abdominal massage would likely do so because of digestive issues although there is also significant musculature in the area that may require release to assist with physical problems. For example, a tight and contracted rectus abdominis muscle will impact on the stability and movement of the lower part of the body or lead to us slouching forward setting up postural imperfection through the lower back.

In total there are at least four layers of muscles in the abdomen and these can impact on your core strength (both your physical and emotional core). Trigger points are not uncommon in the abdominal muscles and the pain referral patterns can include the lower back. Simons and Travell (1) observed that

An active trigger point high in the rectus abdominis muscle on either side can refer to the mid-back bilaterally, which is described by the patient as running horizontally across the back on both sides at the thoracolumbar level … In the lowest part of the rectus abdominis, trigger points may refer pain bilaterally to the sacroiliac and low back regions.

Regardless of the requirement for remedial massage and trigger point techniques for hypertonic muscles in the abdomen, the vast majority of abdominal massage will be for digestive issues. Most therapists consider that massage to the stomach areas will improve the capability of the digestive system and will potentially benefit some of the organs that are contained within the abdominal cavity (such as liver, pancreas, gall bladder, small intestine and colon). A recent review of research has confirmed that there are likely to be benefits for performing abdominal massage to treat chronic constipation. Sinclair (2) concluded “studies have demonstrated that abdominal massage can stimulate peristalsis, decrease colonic transit time, increase the frequency of bowel movements in constipated patients, and decrease the feelings of discomfort and pain that accompany it. There is also good evidence that massage can stimulate peristalsis in patients with post-surgical ileus.”

Routine for Abdominal Massage
In order to give an abdominal massage then the stomach needs to be exposed and it is usually recommended that there be some bolstering under the knees to slightly relax the abdominal region. Normal massage lubricatants are fine to use.

– Place your hands gently on the stomach and palpate. The stomach should feel soft and relaxed

– Always be aware of the breathing of the client and work with the breathe, not against it.

– Sink in through the diaphragm region with the breathe of the client

– Lightly work along the lower border of the rib-cage with fingers and thumbs.

– Gently effleurage the area with light circular strokes. Always work in the direction of the digestive system which means working clockwise around the stomach.

– Place your hands over the rectus abdominis and gently palpate for areas of tenderness and restriction. Work the edges of the muscles with static compression (asking the client to tense the muscle by have them start to sit up) with sufficient pressure to be therapeutic but not too much that it causes pain. Release attachments at the xyphoid process (obviously without ever putting direct pressure on the vulnerable process itself). Release the attachments at the upper border of the pubic bone (mindful of the sensitive nature of this area – if client has any concerns then you can get them to use their own hand to achieve this release or alternatively work through a drape).

– Work deeper under the ribcage on both sides of the body (be aware of working too deeply directly into the liver which is on the right side of the body). Cross friction at any tender points.

– Pull through the sides of the body with relaxed hands, reaching around the body as far as possible, working and stretching the fascia.

– Work the ascending colon (right side) and descending colon (left). Make sure you connect with sufficient pressure through colon although not too much so that it causes pain. Some therapists recommended clearing the descending colon first too “make room”.

– Finish with a calming connective touch to the abdomen.

  
Normal massage contraindications would apply for abdominal bodywork and if the massage is to be performed for a specific health objective then it is recommended that it be discussed with suitable doctor prior to treatment. Also be aware that many people may have emotional sensitivity and instinctively be highly protective of this so any bodywork needs to be mindful and respectful

1. Simons DG, Travell JG. Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual, Volume 1, Upper Half of Body, 2nd Edition. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 1999:943.
2. Sinclair M. The use of abdominal massage to treat chronic constipation. J Bodyw Mov Ther 2011; 15:436-445.

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Update – a 2011 review of the effect of abdominal massage in chronic constipation found that abdominal massage can stimulate peristalsis, decrease colonic transit time, increase the frequency of bowel movements in constipated patients, and decrease the feelings of discomfort and pain that accompany it.

“The use of abdominal massage to treat chronic constipation.” Sinclair M.
J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2011 Oct;15(4):436-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2010.07.007. Epub 2010 Aug 25.
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By Richard Lane

PNF Stretching

PNF stretching is considered to be the most effective way to increase static flexibility and is a combination of static passive stretching and isometric stretching. PNF stands for Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation and was first developed as a treatment for paralysis patients.

PNF stretching is usually carried out with a partner who provides the resistance for the isometric contraction although it can be done without a partner (but generally will be less effective). If using a partner, then it is important that the partner be attentive and focused.

Pnf StretchingThe most commonly used PNF technique is the “Hold-Relax” which is sometimes referred to as the “Contract-Relax”. The muscle is stretched passively towards the limit of its range of motion and then the muscle being stretched is isometrically contracted for 5-15 seconds after which the muscle is relaxed for a couple of seconds before being subjected to a passive stretch which should be greater than the initial passive stretch. This stretch is held for around 10-15 seconds before repeating the PNF stretch one or two more times.

PNF Stretching Examples: Hamstring Stretch
For an example of a PNF stretch, then the person being stretched lies flat on their back with one leg bent at 45 degrees and the other leg extended straight. The partner lifts the straight leg until a comfortable stretch is felt through the hamstring (nb partner just supports the stretched leg and does not push). This stretch is held for 15 seconds.

The stretchee should then isometrically contract the hamstring against partner’s resistance for 5-15 seconds, relaxes and the partner gently guides the hamstring to a deeper stretch. This is repeated a few more times until there is no further increase in range of motion.

Brief PNF Physiology of Stretching
Muscles spindles cells located within the muscles, protect the muscle from injury. They sense how far and fast a muscle is being stretched and when activated produce a stretch reflex. This reflex causes the muscles to contract to prevent overstretching the muscle.

Located within the muscle tendon is another sensor called the golgi tendon which senses how much tension is being put upon the tendon. When the golgi tendon is activated then it relaxes the muscles (unlike the muscle spindle).

A voluntary contraction during a stretch increases the tension on the muscle, activating the golgi tendon organs more than the stretch alone. So when the voluntary contraction is stopped the muscle is inhibited from contracting against a subsequent stretch. PNF stretches uses this to take advantage of the sudden vulnerability of the muscle and its increased range of motion by using the period immediately following the isometric contraction to train the stretch receptors to get used to this new, increased, muscle length. This is accomplished by the final passive stretch.

Some General Recommendations for PNF Stretching

•Leave 48 hours between PNF stretching routines
•For each muscle group complete 2-5 sets of the chosen exercise
•Each set should consist of one stretch held for 10-15 seconds after the contracting and relaxing phases
•PNF is not recommended for anyone under 18 years old
•A 5-10 minute thorough warm up is recommended before performing PNF stretching as a separate exercise session.

While most of us could obtain benefit from the improvement in flexbility that PNF stretching can bring, there is some conjecture amongst sports professionals about the effective of stretching in general to reduce the risk of injuries and to improve performance. Although there is some conflicting evidence reported, on balance research literature reviews such as reported by Thacker et al (1) support the hypothesis that routine stretching has little impact on reducing total injuries amongst competitive or recreational athletes.

  
However, research has also found that pnf stretching may lead to improvements in running mechanics. Caplan et al (2) concluded from studying rubgy league players that stretch training at the end of regular training is effective in improving running mechanics during high velocity running.

As with all stretches, only take a PNF to the limit of what feels comfortable. Pain is an indication that you are overstretching.

In addition, there are advantages and disadvantages of PNF stretching and it may be worthwhile discussing these with a suitably qualified sports therapist.

(1) Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, Kimsey CD., Jr. “The impact of stretching on sports injury risk: a systematic review of the literature”. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:371-378
(2) Caplan N, Roggers R, Parr MK, Hayes PR. “The effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretch training on running mechanics.” J Strength Cond Res, 2009, 23: 1175-1180

By Richard Lane

Therapeutic Breast Massage

Breast massage can be a contentious issue amongst therapists. Some promote that there potential health benefits through lymphatic drainage; others are less enthusiastic about any advantages of performing breast massage. Some are concerned about the personal nature of any Sydney massage that involves touching of breast tissue; others are more relaxed.

However, it must be mentioned that professional associations have policies regarding breast massage. For example, the Australian Association of Massage Therapists offers a policy development document on this issue at http://membership.aamt.com.au/lib/Journals/Summer06/AAMTbreast.pdf.
Within this document they state:

Massage therapists must recognise, accept and respect the right of every individual client to choose whether they wish to decline breast massage …..
Even when agreement with the client for the breasts to be included in a treatment is granted, it is entirely inappropriate and completely unnecessary to provide disproportionately prolonged massage to the area and that that the client is free to revoke that consent during the massage.

AAMT suggest that massage of the breast tissue is currently practiced in modalities of Manual Lymph Drainage, Lymphodema, Lomi Lomi and post surgical breast augmentation and when specifically prescribed by a Medical Practitioner. During a standard remedial or relaxation massage then there is no reason for the breasts to be massaged and the ATMS policy is that mammary glands should not be massaged and only professional techniques should be applied to surrounding tissues.

This last point can cause a little confusion from massage recipients though. For example, the pectoral muscle groups are often indicated when people have tension in their neck and shoulders. Tightness in the upper back muscles is often the result of excessively hypertonic pectoral muscles bringing the shoulders forward. Therapists may often feel that lengthening these muscles of the upper chest is important for improved posture yet to access these muscles then the therapist needs to work close to breast tissue.

Massage for the pectoral musclesThe picture to the right on this page of this page demonstrates a therapist performing a remedial massage technique on the pectoral region. It is easy to image that, on women with a larger bust, performing such a stroke for the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles would be extremely difficult without touching breast tissue.

But this stroke would not be applying massage to the breast itself.

  
Therapists do need to be mindful of such strokes, explaining why they need to work in this area and soliciting permission from the client before commencing. The client also has the right to request the therapist stop should they ever become uncomfortable about the nature of the touch. Some therapists may ask the client to hold their breast to provide a physical barrier between the therapist’s hand and the breast.

As mentioned above breast massage in Sydney is not permitted within a remedial or relaxation massage. I have included the technique (with client permission) during Lomi Lomi massage. Within a traditional Lomi Lomi massage then including massage to the breasts is considered to be a normal part of the routine and whilst there is obviously no muscles within breast tissue, there are claims that it can reduce pain and stress in the chest.

Breathing and Neck Pain

Have been seeing a few clients lately with neck pain with trigger points present in their scalenes muscles. These muscles are side of the neck (more towards the front than the back) and they are used to tilt the neck and also stabilise the ribs when breathing.

Typically this arises when the person is what is known as paradoxically breathing or thoracic breathing when we should be diaphramatically breathing.

Some people can diaphragmatically breathe in one position but not in another. For example, many of us fail when we are sitting typing on a computer. Yet, We should be able to breathe correctly whether standing, sitting or lying.

One technique that is often used to train our breathing patterns is to put your right hand on your chest and left hand on your stomach. With your eyes closed then breathe in through the nose to a count of around 4 and then exhale via the mouth. This exhalation is also performed to the count of four. Whilst this exhalation is taking place then the abdomen should be returning to the original position.

This exercise should be practiced for around 60 seconds at any one time and should be repeat during the day whilst standing, sitting and lying down.

A demonstration of breathing exercises is shown in the video below.

  

Do you cheat when you stretch your quads?

Many people “cheat” when they stretch their quads. The standard stretch for the quads that you will see many people doing is to stand on one leg and bring their foot to your butt.

However, the chances are that their alignment is such that they are not actually stretching the quads at all, but merely compensating by hip or trunk rotation.

(If you can cope with the sound of young children) The following video explains how best to perform a genuine quad stretch.

Free Massages – How Not to Give Them

When you are a student massage therapist then providing a free massage for Sydney family members and friends is considered part of the training. In return for you giving them a massage then you get the chance to practice strokes and techniques that you may have learnt in class. In addition, you can solicit feedback from the recipient of the free massage.

It is a win-win situation.

However, once you have qualified and start working as a massage therapist then this synergistic situation changes. You are confident of your skills and how your bodywork is received by clients and client feedback is less important for you.

If you have been working hard at a clinic, doing mobile massage or at a spa then the last thing you want to be doing when you get home is to give away a freebie.

free massage in SydneyUnfortunately from the therapists point of view though friends and family don’t necessarily see it this way and many therapists are frequently asked to give them a few minutes of time to massage their stiff neck or sore shoulder.

A question that is often posed is how can I, as a therapist, politely decline to work on them?

On a recent Facebook posting, therapists gave suggestions on how to deal with this issue. The most common response was along the lines of handing the person your business card and asking them to call to make a booking.

Here of some of the other answers.

I say in a funny sarcastic yet friendly way, “I have all my free massages when I was in school for two years. I have to pay off my student loans before giving anymore free massages.”

I’m just honest. I tell them that I don’t have the stamina on my days off and they always understand. If I can tell someone is just trying to get a freebie, I tell them they can have a business card. They laugh and say, “Smart answer”.

Tell them you’ll trade if they work on you first

When family and friends come crying to me about what is hurting on them (hinting about wanting me to work on them) I always reply by telling them what is hurting on me. They usually get the hint

It seems that people think that because we are MT’s, that we never hurt. Typically don’t like it when I say… Yeah, my neck and back are killing me too!

Sometimes if my friends say “Oh, my back hurts so badly!” I answer with, “I’m sorry, I wish I knew someone who could help”

Make an appointment, today’s my day off.

“Sure! I’ll trade you. I can always use a massage! 5 minutes for 5 minutes?” “Uhh.. uhh… uhh… “

  
But probably my favourite is

If you know someone who is a mechanic, and says “My back hurts, can you help me?” answer: My car needs brakes, can you help me later tonight?
If you know someone who does daycare and they ask for free massage, ask them in turn to babysit your kids for free when they get off work.
You get the point. If they wouldn’t work for free, why should you?

By Richard Lane

Massage Client Behaviour
– What Bugs Us

Although massage therapists always try to give the best experience they can to all clients, they are only human. Some client behaviour can impact on the mood and general psyche of the therapist and you may be surprised at some of the things that may annoy your therapist. Most of these apply whether you are visiting a massage clinic or having a Sydney mobile massage.

Recently an online massage discussion talked about client behaviour that winds up therapists.

Open Eyes
Lying on your back with your eyes open is kind of freaky for us. It gives the impression that you are not relaxing and/or enjoying the massage. Some therapists commented that they were a little unnerved and felt like they were being watched.

“Helping Us”
When we move a particular part of your body such as a limb or leg, then we like to have the muscles relaxed and loose. If you are helping us by holding your arm or your head up then muscles will be contracting which we don’t want contracted.
However, some people can be too loose. To quote from one therapist:

what I refer to as “bobble heads”, there is a difference between relaxing your neck for me to work on it and letting it go completely limp so every time I touch it, you just bobble around.

Try to relax and switch off. Let the therapist do the work – that’s what your paying them for.

massage behaviourCutting it fine
Some people will arrive right on the designated appointment time (or a few minutes late) but then trundle off to the loo and spend 5-10 minutes there whilst the therapist paces up and down waiting for them. Massage therapy is a business so time is money and many therapists operate a tight schedule and cannot afford to run behind time.

However, there is one thing worse than going to the loo when you should be on the massage table and that is
….not going to the loo.

Some therapists describe situations when the client left it too late before using the bathroom……….

Not talking to us
If you are lying on the massage table and not enjoying aspects of the massage then talk to us and let us know. If you want more or less pressure, if you don’t particularly enjoy a stroke or technique, if the room is too warm or cold, if the music is bugging you then please tell us. Whilst some things may be outside of our control, we will endeavour to change what we can so that your massage can be as enjoyable and effective as possible for you.

Talking to us
This can vary from therapist to therapist but some therapists find it distracting if you are constantly talking. It can give the impression that you are not relaxing and not overly enjoying the bodywork.
However, it may be the case that you use your time on the table to wind down and you do this by talking and unloading.
If you want to talk and your therapist doesn’t then maybe it might be time for you to find a therapist who is more open to chatting and conversation during the massage.

Unreasonable expectations
A common theme amongst the discussion was that sometimes clients have unrealistic expectations about what we can do within the one session. If you expect me to release your calf muscles, increase your hamstring flexibility, cure your tennis elbow, address that nagging pain in your lower back, free up your shoulders, loosen a tight neck and get rid of the thumping headache you are suffering from, in one 60 minute session then, sorry, but you will be disappointed.
I’ll do what I can but if you require remedial or medical massages, I can generally only work on a couple of areas effectively with one hour.

Not letting us know what is happening with your health
If anything has happened with your health since we saw you last, please let us know. To quote from one response:

Another time an elderly lady said, while on the table and after saying, “no, no changes this week”, “oh yeah, I had a small stroke the other day”. Yeah…….the MT about had a small stroke…..

  
Other (irritating) behaviours described included:

  • Leaving phones on and talking during a session.
    Cracking knuckles during an entire session.
    Playing games on a phone.
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    Please be aware that these are personal comments from individual therapists and ultimately you are the paying customer. However, it might be worthwhile to have an appreciation of the massage from the therapists point of view.

    Want Great Massage
    – Then Speak Up!

    If you regularly experience massage then you know the type of touch you like. Some people like point pressure, some people like flowing strokes. Some people like strong pressure (which they may refer to as deep tissue massage), others like a more gentle nurturing approach. Some people like different techniques and pressures for different muscle groups. Some people like different massages at different times depending on their mood and how their body is feeling on a particular day. Some people like a full body massage including massage to the glutes, abdomen and pecs, others prefer the session to concentrate on specific problem areas such as the neck, shoulders or back for example.

    massageNow whilst many massage therapists may consider that they have a degree of intuition and may modify a particular session based on what they are feeling both physically and intuitively, unfortunately none of us are mind readers. We are only guessing how the massage feels for you.

    To optimise the benefit you receive from your massage then there is an onus on you to communicate your requirements and preferences.

    If there are techniques, strokes and styles that you particularly enjoy (or particularly dislike) then let your therapist know before the session. If there are parts of your body that you want included in the massage then please communicate that to your therapist (similarly if you don’t want particular areas included).

       
    For me personally, I dislike being jabbed or prodded with point pressure with a sudden motion. It does nothing for me (and to be honest I cannot understand how it is supposed to improve the function of the soft tissue). But it is up to me to tell is to the therapist.

    Once the session begins again if there is anything that is bugging you with the way the therapist is working, don’t just lie there but speak up. Tell your therapist that you want more or less pressure. Let them know that you would prefer more gliding/stretching strokes rather than acupressure style or whatever the case may be.

    Although you may not wish to talk too much during your treatment, just a couple of comments to direct the therapist will go a long way to providing you with the bodywork you are after.

    By Richard Lane

    Subscapularis Massage

    I recently posed an online question to other therapists about what muscles they believe do not receive sufficient attention from bodyworkers. My suggestions was the SCM (sternocleidomastoid) muscle at the front of the neck. Other suggestions included the gluteal muscles, the pecs and abs which didn’t surprise me too much. However, a few therapists included the subscapularis muscle in their lists which I have to admit, is not a muscle I would normally spend a great deal of time on.

    Their comments inspired me to have a look at subscapularis, what it does and why it may be important for some shoulder conditions.

    Now the subscapularis muscle is part of the rotator cuff group, along with the teres minor, infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles. These muscles work together to stabilise the humerus in the glenoid fossa of the shoulder. From a massage therapists terminology it attaches to the anterior surface of the scapula at the subscapular fossa and the lesser tubercle of the humerus. It’s action is to internally rotating and adducting the humerus (along with it’s stabilisation role).

    Pain and dysfunction in the subscapularis muscle often manifests as an inability to lift the arm above the shoulder (although it should be mentioned that not being able to lift the arm above the shoulder does not necessarily indicate that there is an injury to the muscle as there are other conditions which have the same impact on lack of shoulder mobility). It is often the case that someone who spends a lot of time in front of a computer may very well have some dysfunction of the subscapularis, such as trigger points (this applies to anyone who works with their arms out in front of them including massage therapists!).

    Pain that is due to dysfunction of the subscapularis can manifest in a number of different ways, it can be sharp and located in the shoulder, deeper or at the top of the shoulder. It can refer down the arm. There can be impingement of the brachial nerve which can lead to numblike sensations or tingling down the arm. The pain can gradually appear over time or, in the case of an acute incident, it can happen at an instant (throwing or pitching a ball is commonly cited as a major contributer to subscapularis injuries). Subscapularis therapy is often indicated when a client is recovering from frozen shoulder.

    Massage for the Subscapularis
    Access to the subscapularis is limited particularly when a client is lying prone and most therapists prefer to do their subscapularis bodywork with the client either supine or in a side-lying position. Examples of supine and sidelying subscapularis massages are shown in the videos below.

    Supine Massage

    Sidelying Massage

    Dr Ben Benjamin advocates using friction treatments to address subscapularis tendon injuries and claims that it can be a remarkably effective treatment for most muscle, tendon and ligament injuries. Friction massage for the subscapularis can be mildly unpleasant and should be performed from 5 to 15 minutes and is demonstrated on the video below.

      


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